[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] 40

[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] 40. IFN pathways. Interestingly, PJA1 interacts with the SMC5/6 complex (a complex essential for chromosome maintenance and HBV restriction) to facilitate the binding of the complex to viral and episomal DNAs in the cell nucleus. Moreover, treatment with inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases (Tops) and knockdown of Tops release PJA1-mediated silencing of viral and extrachromosomal DNAs. Taken together, results of this work demonstrate that PJA1 interacts with SMC5/6 and facilitates the complex to bind and eliminate viral and episomal DNAs through DNA Tops and thus reveal a distinct mechanism underlying restriction of DNA viruses and foreign genes in the cell nucleus. IMPORTANCE DNA viruses, including hepatitis B virus and herpes simplex virus, induce a series of immune responses in the host and lead to human public health concerns worldwide. In addition to cytokines in the cytoplasm, restriction of viral DNA in the nucleus is an important approach of host immunity. However, the mechanism of foreign PM 102 DNA recognition and restriction in the cell nucleus is largely unknown. This work demonstrates that an important cellular factor (PJA1) suppresses DNA viruses and transfected plasmids independent of type I and II interferon (IFN) pathways. Instead, PJA1 interacts with the chromosome maintenance complex (SMC5/6), facilitates the complex to recognize and bind viral and episomal DNAs, and recruits DNA topoisomerases to restrict the foreign molecules. These results reveal a distinct mechanism underlying the silencing of viral and episomal invaders in the cell nuclei and suggest that PJA1 acts as a potential agent to prevent infectious and inflammatory diseases. and mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR. (L) HepG2-sh-NC and HepG2-sh-PJA1 cells were infected with HSV-1 at an MOI of 0.1 for 8 h. (Left) HSV-1 and mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR. (Right) HepG2 cell lines stably expressing pLKO.1-sh-NC or -sh-PJA1 were generated, and PJA1 mRNA levels in HepG2-sh-NC and HepG2-sh-PJA1 cells were detected. (M) Vero cells were plated in 6-well plates, transfected with 2 g pCAGGS-HA or pCAGGS-HA-PJA1B for 24 h, and infected with HSV-1 at an MOI of 0.1. At 48 h postinfection, cell culture supernatants were collected, and the viral yields were determined by a plaque assay. Data are shown as means SD and correspond to results from a representative experiment out of three performed. **, 0.01; ***, 0.001. We further determined whether PM 102 PJA1 has any effect on the replication of HSV-1 containing a liner double-stranded DNA genome. The viral and mRNAs were significantly attenuated in HepG2 cells stably expressing PJA1B and infected with HSV-1 (Fig. 1K), suggesting that PJA1B overexpression represses HSV-1 gene transcription. However, and mRNAs were significantly upregulated in HepG2 cells treated with sh-PJA1B and infected with HSV-1 (Fig. 1L), indicating that PJA1B knockdown facilitates HSV-1 gene transcription. Moreover, the viral titer was significantly reduced in the supernatant of Vero cells transfected with pHA-PJA1B and infected with HSV-1 (Fig. 1M), revealing that PJA1B attenuates PM 102 KDELC1 antibody HSV-1 replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PJA1 represses the transcription and replication of the DNA viruses HBV and HSV-1. PJA1 represses DNA viruses and episomal plasmids independent of type I and II IFNs. The host immune system utilizes pattern recognition receptors to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns or damage-associated molecular patterns, leading to immune responses. Viral or cellular DNA has the potential to activate immune responses through different pathways, and the PM 102 best-characterized one is the activation of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and IFNs (32). Since PJA1 attenuates DNA virus replication, we assumed that PJA1 may play a role in the activation of IFN signaling. However, in HEK293T (293T) cells, PJA1B did not induce endogenous type.