The collection of CB cells does not require any surgical procedures, and these cells can be obtained from any private or public cell bank. Wang and colleagues successfully reprogrammed hUCB-MSCs using a dox-inducible lentiviral system46. prevents movement of these cells and explains why cartilage is usually avascular, aneural, and alymphatic. Consequently, it is usually difficult for chondrocytes and nutrients to reach the defected cartilage. Progressive wear on articular cartilage causes a loss of Rabbit Polyclonal to OR2T2 cartilage tissue, which eventually prospects to degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA)1. According to the Global Burden of Disease study, OA was the third most prevalent musculoskeletal disease in 2010 2010 and affected the knee joints in 83% of cases3. The OA prevalence of the knee joints in South Korea is one of the highest in the Asia-Pacific region. In the United States (US), OA is usually reported to impact 33.6% (12.4 million) of adults aged 65 years or older. Considering the increases in populace size and life expectancy, the worldwide occurrence of degenerative joint diseases is predicted to increase1. Therefore, a method to efficiently regenerate cartilage would greatly improve the treatment of these diseases. Attempts have been made to regenerate cartilage using cells from numerous sources. Adult stem cells, especially human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), obtained from different regions (i.e. bone marrow, cord blood (CB), and adipose tissue) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) are widely used due to their innate regenerative capacities. However, the limited proliferation and differentiation potentials of these cells hamper treatment. To overcome this, researchers are attempting to regenerate cartilage using pluripotent stem cells. This review focuses on the abilities of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from these cells Azilsartan D5 to regenerate cartilage, as well as the advantages of these cells in this context (Fig. 1). Open in a separate windows Fig 1. Comparison of bone marrow-derived MSCs and cord blood-derived MSCs. The characteristics of each cell during harvest, culture are shown. HLA: human leukocyte antigen; MSC: mesenchymal stem cell. Application of CB for Cartilage Regeneration Umbilical CB Cells hUCB is usually a common source of cells for transplantation and is readily available. hUCB-derived cells are routinely collected and banked worldwide4. CB has several advantages over other cell sources (Fig. 1). First, CB is usually very easily collected and is reported to contain a higher percentage of stem cells than reddish bone marrow. Second, there is a lower risk of contamination during the collection of hUCB. CB consists of hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)5. CD34+ cells are usually transplanted because they have the highest proliferative and stemness potentials6. Third, the hUCB-derived cells have a low level of immunogenicity because of the decreased functionality of fetal lymphocytes, which is one of the major advantages of CB. These cells are reportedly less likely to cause graft-versus-host disease because they are collected from newborns, who are in a relatively immunodeficient state5. Due to these characteristics, hUCB-MSCs have been permissive to allogeneic transplantation and are now considered an alternative source to be examined Azilsartan D5 in long-term clinical trials7,8. Fourth, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type is determined for all those banked hUCB-derived cells, which facilitates the selection of cells of the appropriate HLA type. Human UCB-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) have several benefits compared with other tissue-derived hMSCs. Clones of hUCB-MSCs were cultured for at least 8C12 passages, while human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) were only able to make it to five populace doublings9. Both hUCB-MSCs or hBMSCs did not show any expression of hematopoietic markers such as CD14, CD34, CD45, and CD133. Expression of CD29, CD44, and CD73 was comparable between the two cell types, however, the Azilsartan D5 expression of CD105 was lower than that of hBMSCs. Both cell sources expressed HLA class I and were unfavorable for HLA class II. However, when compared with hBMSCs or human adipose-derived MSCs (hASCs), Kern Azilsartan D5 and colleagues confirmed that it was more hard to obtain hUCB-MSCs10. When seeded with an initial plating density of 1 1 106 cells per cm2, fibroblastoid cells derived from both hBMSCs and hASCs were able to induce a monolayer of outgrowth cells after only 4C5 days, while it required 2C4 weeks after plating in the case of hUCB-MSCs. The proliferation capacity was least expensive in hBMSCs, which experienced the lowest doubling number through passages 4C6. The doubling rate of hASCs after passage 3 was followed, while hUCB-MSCs experienced the highest.